0214 GMT November 20, 2019
Cancer in children is comparatively rare; when it does occur it is more likely to have been triggered by something in the child’s genetic makeup than by anything to do with lifestyle or the environment, theguardian.com wrote.
Part of the reason for the rise is thought likely to be better detection. But experts say it is vital to collect better data from all over the world to establish all the causes, which could include infections and environmental pollutants.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which has published its findings in the medical journal Lancet Oncology, said the numbers recorded in cancer registries around the world have gone up since the 1980s.
Between 2001-2010, there were 140 children in every million who were diagnosed with cancer under the age of 14, which represents a 13-percent increase.
IARC for the first time gives numbers for adolescents with cancer. There were 185 adolescents in every million diagnosed with cancer, most commonly lymphomas, which are cancers of the white blood cells.
IARC’s director, Christopher Wild, said, “Cancer is a significant cause of death in children and adolescents, in spite of its relatively rare occurrence before the age of 20 years.
“This extensive new set of information on the pattern and incidence of cancer in young people is vital to raise awareness and to better understand and combat this neglected area of health early in life.”
A third of the cases under the age of 15 were of leukemia — a cancer of the blood that is now successfully treated in Europe and the US.
A second paper, published in the Lancet Haematology journal, looks at the stark variation in survival from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (or ALL) in childhood around the world between 2005 and 2009.
In Germany, 92 percent of children survived for at least five years but in Colombia the figure was 52 percent.
Survival rates have improved significantly in all countries. From 1995-99 and 2005-09, five-year survival for the disease ALL, in children, increased from 79 percent to 89 percent in the UK, and from 83 percent to 88 percent in the US.
Regarding a second form of the disease, Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), five-year survival increased from 59 percent to 68 percent in the UK and from 52 percent to 63 percent in the US.
Survival in China increased substantially over the same period — from 11 percent to 69 percent for ALL survival, and four percent to 41 percent for AML survival.
The IARC study on the global cancer rise has gathered information from cancer registries worldwide.
But while the data covers 100 percent of children in Europe and North America, it accounts for only five percent or a lower percentage in Africa and Asia, where the information is not routinely collected.
In poorer countries, some children’s cancers are never diagnosed and their deaths will not be investigated. Social factors may explain why the cancer numbers for girls and small babies are very low.
In wealthier countries, greater understanding of cancers affecting children and adolescents and the development of better tools will account for much of the rise in numbers.
Anna Perman, Cancer Research UK’s senior science information manager, said, “It’s likely that this reported rise in children’s cancers is, in part, due to improvements in diagnosis.
“We now have a better understanding of the symptoms of children’s cancers, which helps doctors to spot those who might have gone undiagnosed before.
“It’s unlikely environmental factors that children are exposed to either early in life or during development in the womb play a big role in this rise.
“Although some environmental and lifestyle factors that do play a role in cancer are on the rise, these usually take many years to influence cancer risk and would be unlikely to cause cancer at a young age.”