The bill was approved on Thursday by 96 votes in favor and two against. If becomes law, the legislation would take punitive measures against Moscow for what Washington called as the Russian meddling during the US presidential election.
"Any idea of the president's that he can lift sanctions on his own for whatever reason are dashed by this legislation," top Democrat Chuck Schumer told fellow senators shortly before the vote.
The sanctions target key sectors of Russian economy and those the White House accuses of being behind cyber attacks to sway the election results.
The US senators also passed a tough sanction on Iran, accusing the Islamic republic of “continued support for terrorism.”
Since he started running for president, candidate Donald Trump has been a staunch supporter of improving relations with the United States’ former Cold War foe.
The intelligence community, however, has concluded that Russia played a role in the presidential election held last November.
In order to prevent Trump from opposing the measure, lawmakers have attached it to a bill intended to impose pressure on Iran, a move favorable to Trump.
Therefore, in order to pressure Tehran, the president will also have to acquiesce to the anti-Russia measure.
Both the president and Russia have denied allegations of collusion and meddling.