The 335-meter wide rock named 99942 Apophis will shoot across the sky like a ‘moving star-like point of light’, getting brighter and faster on Friday, April 13, 2029, stuff.co.nz reported.
At 30,500 kilometers above the Earth's surface, it will first become visible to the naked eye in the night sky over the Southern Hemisphere from the east coast to the west coast of Australia.
The asteroid will then pass across the Indian Ocean, moving west above Africa, then travelling above the Atlantic Ocean in just an hour, reaching the US by the evening.
It is rare for an asteroid of this size to pass Earth so closely, according to NASA, which said that smaller asteroids from 10-20 meters have been spotted at similar distances but those the size of Apophis are much fewer.
NASA scientists discussed the observation and science opportunities for the celestial event at the 2019 Planetary Defense Conference in Maryland, the US.
According to researchers, Apophis will travel more than the width of the full moon within a minute and will shine as bright as the stars in the Little Dipper constellation.
"The Apophis close approach in 2029 will be an incredible opportunity for science," said Marina Brozović, a radar scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
"We'll observe the asteroid with both optical and radar telescopes,
"With radar observations, we might be able to see surface details that are only a few meters in size."
When a team of astronomers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory discovered Apophis in 2004, initial orbital calculations revealed that the asteroid had a 2.7-percent chance of impacting Earth in 2029.
However, additional observations completely ruled out that possibility, showing that Apophis still has a small chance of impacting Earth — less than one in 100,000 — many decades from now.
Davide Farnocchia, an astronomer at JLP's Center for Near Earth Objects Studies said, "We already know that the close encounter with Earth will change Apophis' orbit, but our models also show the close approach could change the way this asteroid spins, and it is possible that there will be some surface changes, like small avalanches."
"Apophis is a representative of about 2000 currently known Potentially Hazardous Asteroids," said Paul Chodas, director of CNEOS.
"By observing Apophis during its 2029 flyby, we will gain important scientific knowledge that could one day be used for planetary defense."