Federer, 37, beat Goffin 7-6 (7/2), 6-1 to secure his 102nd career singles title and remain unbeaten on grass so far this season, AFP reported.
"It's unbelievable. I never thought when I first played here that I would win 10 titles," said Federer.
The Swiss star is chasing a ninth Wimbledon crown in London next month as he looks to extend and defend his record of 20 career majors.
Long-term rival Rafael Nadal moved to within just two titles of Federer's record with his 12th French Open triumph earlier this month, while world number one Novak Djokovic is just five short with 15 career majors.
Federer endured a rough ride in the early rounds in Halle, battling to hard-fought, three-set victories over Jo-Wilfried Tsonga and Roberto Bautista Agut.
Things got easier in the latter stages as he thrashed Andy Murray's new doubles partner Pierre-Hugues Herbert in the semifinals before dispatching Goffin on Sunday.
Federer held off three break points early in the first set before prevailing in the tiebreaker.
An unsettled looking Goffin then gifted Federer the opening game of the second set with a double fault on break point.
From there, the Swiss never looked back, breaking Goffin twice more on his way to a 10th Halle title.
It is the first time Federer has reached double figures at any individual tournament.
He has triumphed eight times at both Wimbledon and the Dubai Open, and has won his home tournament in Basel on nine occasions.