Kramp-Karrenbauer, who also heads Angela Merkel's Christian Democrats (CDU) and is seen as the chancellor's most likely successor, said a pullout of foreign troops would be particularly tough for Afghan women.
"I am worried that if we were to ditch our responsibility (in Afghanistan) we will face horrifying images of women being stoned and hanged and of girls not able to attend school and married off," Kramp-Karrenbauer told a gathering of CDU women, Presstv Reported.
US President Donald Trump this month cancelled a planned meeting with Taliban leaders at his Camp David retreat, dealing a blow to talks between his administration and the group aimed at ending the almost 18-year conflict.
The United States had said it would withdraw almost 5,000 troops from Afghanistan and close five military bases under a draft agreement with the Taliban.
Trump cancelled the peace talks with Taliban leaders after the insurgents said they were behind an attack in Kabul that killed an American soldier and 11 other people.
Germany has some 1,300 soldiers in Afghanistan. Their parliament-approved mandate ends in March 2020.
The United States has some 14,000 troops in the country, where the US military has fought its longest ever war which started with a campaign to topple the Taliban in 2001 after the Sept. 11 attacks on American soil.
Trump has been putting pressure on Germany to meet a NATO-mandated military spending budget of 2% of economic output.
Merkel said last month she was taking her government's commitment to meet that goal seriously.
Under current budget plans, Germany would spend just more than 1.4% of output on defense.