Israel's military said soldiers had been fending off Palestinians who had approached and tried to sabotage its security fence. The military also said the demonstrators threw a number of explosive devices, Presstv Reported.
Residents in Gaza said a few dozen Palestinians had approached the border fence, an area in which Israel's military, citing security concerns, enforces a "no go" zone. Some in the crowd hurled stones at the barrier, residents said.
Fahd Al-Astal, 16, was killed and four other people were wounded by live fire on Friday, Gaza's health ministry said.
Israeli soldiers have used tear gas, rubber bullets and live ammunition against Palestinian demonstrators along the Gaza border, since the rallies started last March.
Gaza officials say about 210 Palestinians have been killed since the weekly protests began in March 2018. In that time an Israeli soldier was shot dead by a Palestinian sniper along the frontier and another was killed during an undercover raid into Gaza.