There are times when people get carried away with the emotion of a European night at Anfield. The noise, the color, the fear that makes world-class opposition players freeze in their tracks; all those elements helped drive Liverpool to the Champions League final last season, but Bayern Munich debunked some myths as it secured a 0-0 round-of-16 first-leg draw on Tuesday.
It was the eclipse felt ‘round the world. The August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse that crossed the United States launched a wave in the upper atmosphere that was detected nearly an hour later from Brazil (SN Online: 8/11/17).
Scientists have long known that steep mountain ranges can draw carbon dioxide (CO₂) out of the atmosphere — as erosion exposes new rock, it also starts a chemical reaction between minerals on hill slopes and CO₂ in the air, ‘weathering’ the rock and using CO₂ to produce carbonate minerals like calcite.
The Red Planet's low gravity and lack of magnetic field makes its outermost atmosphere an easy target to be swept away by the solar wind, but new evidence from ESA's Mars Express spacecraft shows that the Sun's radiation may play a surprising role in its escape.
Today, Mars is a freezing cold desert and has been for at least three billion years. And yet, the Red Planet features a network of water-carved valleys that scientists believe formed between 1½ and three million years ago.